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How to Detect Lies

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How to Detect Lies

Post  SasquaiNation on Wed Aug 15, 2012 9:17 pm

After watching Ro's interview with Justin and reading the polygraph results, I determined that Justin was being truthful. This of course is my personal opinion. I actually came to my conclusion after watching the conversation the two men had.
I still think parts of the "real" story are missing though, but that's a personal opinion.
As far as I know, all those present with Justin recently believe he is being truthful.
The big debate now is the accuracy of polygraph testing. Is it accurate? I've taken some time and visited various internet sites and the consensus is that polygraph tests are not very reliable and can be cheated. I am not going to get in to the entire debate again because there is another thread discussing this.
The purpose of this thread is to give everyone information on how to detect lies and come to an honest conclusion on their own. If people are truly interested, they can read for themselves and watch Ro's interview with Justin. Be prepared to spend a considerable amount of time with this.

I have copied and pasted most of the text so people don't have to jump from one page to another.

**Please visit the site linked here and read through it carefully first** How to Detect Lies

Observe the face and eyes

Look for micro-expressions. Micro-expressions are facial expressions that flash on a person's face for a fraction of a second and reveal the person's true emotion underneath their facade. Some people may be naturally sensitive to them, but almost anybody can easily train to be able to detect micro-expressions. Typically, in a person who is lying, his or her micro-expression will exhibit the emotion of distress, characterized by the eyebrows being drawn upwards towards the middle of the forehead, thus sometimes causing short lines to appear across the forehead skin.
Look for nose touching and mouth covering. People tend to touch the nose more when lying and a great deal less when telling the truth.[1] A lying person is more likely to cover his or her mouth with a hand or to place the hands near the mouth, almost as if to cover the lies coming forth.
If the mouth appears tense and the lips are pursed, this can indicate distress.[2][3]
Notice the person's eye movements. You can usually tell if a person is remembering something or making something up based on eye movements. When people remember details, their eyes move to the right (your right). When people make something up, their eyes move to the left. People also tend to blink more rapidly ("eye flutter") as they're telling a lie. More common in men than in women, another tell of a lie can be rubbing the eyes.[1]
Watch the eyelids. These tend to close longer than the usual blink when a person sees or hears something he or she doesn't agree with.[2] However, this can be a very minute change, so you will need to know how the person blinks normally during a non-stressful situation for accurate comparison. If the hands or fingers also go to the eyes, this may be another indicator of trying to "block out" the truth.[2]
Do not use eye contact or lack of it as a sole indicator of truthfulness. Contrary to popular belief, a liar does not always avoid eye contact.[1] Humans naturally break eye contact and look at non-moving objects to help them focus and remember. Liars may deliberately make eye contact to seem more sincere; this can be practiced to overcome any discomfort, as a way of "proving" that truth is being told. Indeed, it has been shown that some liars tend to increase the level of eye contact in response to the fact that investigators have often considered eye contact as a tell.[2] Clearly, only use eye aversion as one indicator in a general context of increasing distress when being asked difficult questions.[2]

Body language giveaways

Watch when the person nods. If the head is nodding or shaking in opposition to what is being said, this can be a tell. For example, a person might say that he or she did something, such as "I cleaned those pots thoroughly" while shaking the head, revealing the truth that the pots were wiped briefly but not scrubbed. Unless a person is trained well, this is an easy unconscious mistake to make and such a physical response is often the truthful one.[1][2] Also, a person may hesitate before nodding when giving an answer. A truthful person tends to nod in support of a statement or answer at the same time it is being given; when someone is trying to deceive, a delay may occur.[1]
Observe the level of mirroring. We naturally mirror the behavior of others with whom we're interacting; it's a way of establishing rapport and showing interest. When lying, mirroring may drop as the liar spends a lot of effort on creating another reality for the listener. Some examples of failed mirroring that might alert you that something's not right include:
Leaning away. When a person is telling the truth or has nothing to hide, he or she tends to lean toward the listener. On the other hand, a liar will be more likely to lean backward, a sign of not wanting to impart more information than is necessary.[2] Leaning away can also mean dislike or disinterest.
An inability or unwillingness to mirror the listener's movements. In people telling the truth, head movements and body gestures tend to be mirrored as part of the interplay between the speaker and the listener. A person trying to deceive may be reluctant to do this, so signs of not copying gestures or head movements could indicate an attempt to cover up. You might even spot a deliberate action to move a hand back to another position or to turn a different way.
Watch the person's throat. A person may constantly be trying to lubricate their throat when they lie by swallowing, gulping or clearing their throat to relieve the tension built up.
Check breathing. A liar tends to breathe faster, displaying a series of short breaths followed by one deep breath.[2] The mouth may appear dry (causing much throat clearing).
Notice the behavior of other body parts. Watch the person's hands, arms and legs. In a non-stressful situation, people tend to be comfortable and take up space by being expansive in hand and arm movements, perhaps sprawling their legs comfortably. In a lying person, these parts of the body will tend to be limited, stiff, and self-directed.[2] The person's hands may touch his or her face, ear, or the back of the neck. Folded arms, interlocked legs and lack of hand movements can be a sign of not wanting to give away information.
Liars tend to avoid hand gestures that we consider a normal part of discussion or conversation. For example, most liars will avoid finger pointing, open palm gestures, stippling (fingertips touching each other in a triangle shape often associated with thinking out loud), etc.[2] However, these movements tend to be second nature in people trained to work in public, such as politicians, CEOs and actors, so the presence of them doesn't necessarily indicate truthfulness in all people.
Be careful! Liars can deliberately slouch to appear "at ease".[2] Yawning and bored behavior may be a sign of trying to act just a little casual about the situation so as to cover up deception.
Check the knuckles. Liars who stay motionless may grip the sides of a chair or other object until the knuckles turn white, not even noticing it's happening.[2]
Grooming behaviors are common in liars, such as playing with their hair.[3] Just check that the person isn't flirting with you though!
Keep in mind that these signals may be a sign of nervousness and not a sign of deceit. They might not necessarily be nervous because they're lying.
Check for sweating. People tend to sweat more when they lie.[4] Yet again, taken on its own, this is not always a reliable indication of lying. Some people may sweat a lot more just because of nervousness, shyness or a condition that causes the person to sweat more than normal. It's one indicator to be read along with a group of signs, such as trembling, blushing and difficulty in swallowing.

Notice verbal responses

Pay attention to the person's voice. A person's voice can be a good lie indicator. He or she may suddenly start talking faster or slower than normal, or the tension may result in a higher-pitched speaking tone.
Mind exaggerated details. See if the person appears to be telling you too much. An example might be, "My mom is living in France, isn't it nice there? Don't you like the Eiffel tower? It's so clean there." Too many details may tip you off to the person's desperation to get you to believe what is being said.
Be aware of impulsive emotional responses. Timing and duration tends to be off when someone is lying. If you ask someone a question and he or she responds directly after the question, there is a chance that the person is lying. This can be because the liar has rehearsed the answer or is already thinking about the answer just to get it over with. Another tell can be omission of relevant time facts, such as saying "I went to work at 5am and when I got home at 5pm, he was dead"––in this glib example, what happened in between has been all too conveniently glided over.
Pay close attention to the person's reaction to your questions. A liar will often feel uncomfortable and turn his or her head or body away, or even subconsciously, so as to put an object between the two of you. While an innocent person would go on the offensive (usually responding with anger, which will often be revealed in a micro-expression directly after you say you don't believe what he or she has said), a guilty person will often go immediately on the defensive (usually by saying something to reassure his or her facts, such as deflections). However, remember that defensiveness can be a sign of innocence too, as a person may be shocked or ashamed to be accused of any wrongdoing.
A truthful person will often respond with even more detailed explanations to expressions of disbelief in his or her story, while someone aiming to deceive won't be ready to reveal much else but keeps repeating what has already been established.[3]
Listen for a subtle delay in responses to questions. An honest answer comes quickly from memory. Lies require a quick mental review of what they have told others to avoid inconsistency and to make up new details as needed. Note that when people look up to remember things, it does not necessarily mean that they're lying––when concentration is required, this is a natural instinct.
Be conscious of the person's usage of words. Verbal expression can give many clues as to whether a person is lying, such as:

Using/repeating your own exact words when answering a question
Stalling tactics, such as asking for a question to be repeated[2] Other stalling tactics include stating that the question asked is excellent, that the answer isn't so simple as yes or no, or confrontational style responses such as "It depends on what you mean by X" or "Where did you get this information?"[2]
Avoiding use of contractions, namely saying "I did not do it" instead of "I didn't do it"––this is an attempt to make it absolutely clear what the liar means[2]
Vocal pitch rising or straining; speaking in a monotonous tone, speaking with a jumpy tone, or allowing pitch to rise and fall unnaturally
Avoiding direct statements or answers (deflections)
Speaking excessively in an effort to convince
Leaving out pronouns (he, she, it, etc.)
Speaking in muddled sentences; liars often stop mid-sentence, restart and fail to finish sentences[3]
Using euphemisms to avoid giving voice to reality is commonplace[2]
Using humor and/or sarcasm to avoid the subject
Using statements such as "to be honest", "frankly", "to be perfectly truthful", "I was brought up to never lie", etc. can be a sign of deception[2]
Looking away only briefly when asked a difficult question––a person telling the truth will tend to look away for a time to concentrate[3]
A noticeable lack of negative elements in the discussion (except for cancelled plans or delays); honest people tend to refer to both negative and positive events in conversation[2]
Allowing silence to enter the conversation; this could follow saying simply "yes" or "no" and the silence indicates that the liar needs to buy time to fabricate an answer
Answering too quickly with a negative statement of a positive assertion, such as "Did you wash those pots lazily?" answered by "No, I did not wash those pots lazily", as an attempt to avoid the impression of a delayed answer[2]
Pausing at an unusual time, such as in the middle of a sentence.
Notice when the person repeats sentences. If the suspect uses almost the exact same words over and over, then it's probably a lie. When a person makes up a lie, he or she often tries to remember a certain phrase or sentence that sounds convincing. When asked to explain the situation again, the liar will use the very same "convincing" sentence again.

Unearthing lying through your own responses

Be careful. Although it is possible to detect dishonesty and lying, it is also possible to misread deception where there is none. A range of factors could be causing a person to appear as if he or she is lying when the "signs" shown might instead be caused by embarrassment, shyness, awkwardness or a sense of shame/inferiority that leads a person to accept blame and "feel guilty" or defensive even though he or she isn't responsible. Moreover, a stressed person can be easily mistaken as a liar, simply because some of the manifestations of being stressed mimic lying indicators––there are only so many ways our bodies can express emotions. It is imperative that any observation of a person suspected of lying involves drawing together a "cluster" of deceptive behaviors and responses, as there is no single "aha!" sign.[2] When assessing the body language, verbal responses and other indicators said to be indicative of lying, consider factors such as:[1]
Is the person unduly stressed in general, not just from the situation in which he or she is in now?
Is there a cultural factor involved? Perhaps the behavior is culturally appropriate in one culture but is seen as dishonest behavior in another.
Are you personally biased or prejudiced against this person? Do you want this person to be lying? Be careful of falling into this trap!
Is there a history of this person lying? Namely, is he or she experienced at it?
Is there a motive and do you have a good reason for suspecting lying?
Are you actually any good at reading lies? Have you taken into account the entire context and not simply zoomed in on one or two possible indicators?
Take time to establish rapport with the alleged liar and create a relaxed atmosphere. This includes not showing any signs that you suspect the other person of lying and making an effort to mirror his or her body language and pace of conversation. When questioning the person, act in an understanding, not overbearing, manner. This approach will help to let down the other person's guard and can help you to read the signs more clearly.
Establish a baseline. A baseline is how someone behaves when he or she is not lying––this serves as the baseline for comparison. As explained in the previous step, establish a rapport and try to make the person comfortable in your presence. Begin by getting to know the person if you don't already, such as his or her name, what he or she does for a living/hobby/studies, etc. and proceed from there––people usually answer such questions truthfully. For someone you do know already, if you still need to check for a baseline, ask how he or she is doing in something you know about him or her, such as a particular project or job.
Learn to spot deflections. Usually, when people are lying, they will tell stories that are true, but are deliberately aimed at not answering the question you asked. If a person responds to the question "Did you ever hit your wife?" with an answer such as, "I love my wife, why would I do that?", the suspect is technically telling a truth, but is avoiding answering your original question. This may indicate that he or she is lying or trying to conceal something from you.
Ask open ended questions at all times.[3] Avoid giving any facts or information that could be used to reconstruct the story or embellish things already said.
Ask the person to tell the story backwards.[3] This is very hard to do, especially when requiring no loss of the details. Even a professional liar can find this reversal of approach a hard one to tackle effectively.
Stare at the alleged liar with a look of disbelief. If the person is lying, he or she will soon become uncomfortable. If the person is telling the truth, he or she will often become angry or just frustrated (lips pressed together, brows down, upper eyelid tensed and pulled down to glare).
Use silence. It's very hard for a liar to avoid filling a void created by you.[2] He or she wants you to believe the lies being woven; silence gives no feedback on whether or not you've bought the story. By being patient and remaining silent, many deceitful people will keep talking to fill that silence, embellishing and possibly slipping up in the process, without even being asked anything more.
Liars try to read you to see if you've bought the tale.[3] If you don't show any signs of something to monitor, many liars will feel uncomfortable.
If you're a good listener, you'll already be avoiding interruptions, which in itself is a great technique to let the story unfold. Practice not interrupting others if you have this tendency––not only will it help you to detect lies but it'll make you a better listener generally!
Follow through. If you have the means, check the validity of what the liar is saying. A skilled liar might give some reason why you shouldn't talk to the person who could confirm or deny a story. These are probably lies themselves, so it might be worthwhile overcoming your reluctance and to check with the person you've been warned against. Anything factual that can be checked should be.


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